ALL KERALA INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS SOCIETY STUDENT CONCLAVE 2019 (AKIASSC’19)

INAUGURATION CEREMONY

The inaugural ceremony of All Kerala Industry Applications Society Student Conclave 2019 (AKIASSC’19) commenced with seeking blessing from almighty. Dr. Leesha Paul (Student branch counsellor, IEEE SB, NSSCE) delivered the IEEE Code of Ethics. Prof. Muhammed Kasim S (Chair, IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala) welcomed the chief guest , other dignitaries and audience. He motivated the delegates to actively participate in the workshop to get benefited. The presidential address was delivered by Dr Sudha T (Principal, NSS College of Engineering, Palakkad). She mentioned about the significance of IEEE and its societies in the current technological world. Chief Guest Dr. Sivaji Chakravorthi, (Director, NIT Calicut) and other dignitaries inaugurated the conclave by lighting the lamp. Dr. Sivaji Chakravorti delivered the inaugural address and he wished all the success to the conclave. Ms. Athira M (Chair, IAS SBC NSSCE) briefed about the activities carried out by IAS SBC NSSCE during the last year and introduced its current Execom members to the gathering. Prof. Biju K (Secretary, IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala) mentioned about the role and significance of IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala. 

The ceremony was further continued with felicitations by Dr. Sameer S M (Chair, IEEE Kerala Section), Er. Dharesan Unnithan K M  (Director, Energy Management Centre Kerala) and Er. Srikanth Vasudevan (IAS CMD Membership Chair). Er.Srikanth pointed out the benefits of being an IEEE member. The awards for the best student branch chapters and volunteer were distributed during the ceremony by the chief guest. An appreciation letter from Mr. Georges Zissis (IAS President) and Peter Magyar (Director of Chapter Development) was handed over to the IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala and the coordinators of AKIASSC’19 during the ceremony. The release of IAS newsletter was performed by Dr. Sameer S M. The renowned website launch was also done during the occasion. The inaugural ceremony was concluded with a vote of thanks delivered by Dr. Vasanthi V (Advisor, IAS SBC NSSCE).

 TECHNICAL TALKS

 

  • Energy efficiency for improving profitability                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Date: 8/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Er. Dharesan Unnithan K M (Director, Energy Management Centre Kerala)

A technical talk on the topic “Energy efficiency and improving profitability” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 8th February 2019 at college auditorium from 4:00 pm to 4:45 pm. The talk was delivered by Er. Dharesan Unnithan K M (Director, Energy Management Centre Kerala). Energy efficiency is an important aspect in the present world especially because of the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental scenarios. Reducing the losses in a system and thereby improving the efficiency is equivalent to conserving the energy. Energy efficiency hence plays an important role in the economy also. Various methods to improve the energy efficiency in domestic and industrial applications were discussed during the talk. The talk was followed by an interactive session for the audience to clear their doubts. After the talk a memento was presented to Er. Dharesan Unnithan K M. 

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non-IEEE Member: 30

  1. Demystifying Hardware Product Development

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Dr. K R Suresh Nair (CTO, SFO Technologies Kochi)

A technical talk on the topic “Demystifying Hardware Product Development” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 9th February 2019 at college auditorium from 3:45 pm to 4:30 pm. The talk was delivered by Dr. K R Suresh Nair (CTO, SFO Technologies Kochi). The session started with an introduction on how to develop a commercial product out of an idea. He also explained the same with various cases from different domains. The session made up a very good platform to ignite sparks on upcoming professionals. As a bonus to the participants, he also explained how to prepare for professional competition in today’s world. He also explained how engineers could make innovative products like watches wearable for deaf and dumb, book readers for blinds etc. The session ended up with the ideas that realising prototype is only 20% of the whole job towards final commercialisation and design for manufacturing should not be an afterthought. A memento presented to Er. K R Suresh Nair for spending his time with young professionals.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

  1. Energy Storage for renewable energy system

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Er. C M Varughese (MD, IGA TECH Industrial Electronics Pvt Ltd, Kochi)

A technical talk on the topic “Energy Storage for renewable energy system” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 9th February 2019 at college auditorium from 3:45 pm to 4:30 pm. The talk was delivered by Er. C M Varughese. Renewable energy is the future of electrical power system they provide clean and sustainable energy compared to conventional fossil fuels. However, the renewable energy sources are not available all the times and this necessitates the use of energy storage systems. He also explained about different types of energy storage systems, that can be used their efficiency, cost aspects etc. The different trends in the usage of energy storage systems also discussed. The talk followed by an interactive session for the audience to clear their doubts. A memento was presented to Er. C M Varughese by Prof. Muhammed Kasim S.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

  1. Autonomous Cars

Date: 10/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Ms. Revathi T S (Senior Engineer, Tata Elxsi)

A technical talk on the topic “Autonomous cars” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 10th February 2019 at college auditorium from 9:30 am to 10:15 am. The talk was delivered by Ms. Revathi T S (Senior Engineer, Tata Elxsi). The session started with the basic definition of autonomous cars explained and the promises they can bring in the future. Autonomous cars can be the safest Technology in the future. The levels can be classified into six categories. Level 1 which provides features to drivers for driving whereas level 5 which makes driving easier since it uses the minimum human effects. Various technologies used for the manufacturing of autonomous cars were explained in detail. Sensor sets including LIDAR technology were explained. The session was concluded by explaining challenges faced for implementing autonomous cars in real life. A Memento was presented to Er. Revathi T S at the end of the session.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

  1. Building Management Systems 

Date: 10/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Er. Shahim Baker (CEO, Baker Associate Group)

A technical talk on the topic “Building Management Systems” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 10th February 2019 at college auditorium from 2:00 pm to 2:45 pm. Er. Shahim Baker (CEO, Baker Associate Groups) delivered a talk about “Building Management Systems”. The talk started with an introduction on the topic.  The building management system is a building automation system that does the monitoring, controlling, and management of systems in a building such as heating, ventilation, lighting and other such services. This helps to achieve a safe and comfortable working environment as well as provides energy savings and increases energy efficiency. The talk also discussed various features available in the system such as man-machine interface, system security, reporting, and remote connectivity for a smooth working.  The efficient building management systems can provide maintenance savings and contribute to energy savings making the buildings more environmentally friendly. The talk ended with an interactive question-answer session where the participants interacted with the speaker to clear their doubts.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

NON-TECHNICAL TALKS

 

  • Studying engineering- Do we need  it differently

 

Date: 8/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Dr. Sivaji Chakravorti (Director, NIT Calicut)

A non-technical talk on the topic “Studying engineering- Do we need it differently” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 9th February 2019 at college auditorium from 4:45 pm to 5:00 pm. The talk was delivered by Dr. Sivaji Chakravorti (Director, NIT Calicut) was indeed an eye-opening session for the budding engineers. The session touched every aspect of today’s curriculum. By including his own life experiences, Dr Sivaji Chakravorti was able to create an impact on the students as to why and how we should learning engineering. The drawbacks of our curriculum today and the lack of communication skills were some of the main areas that were explained. The talk indeed was a motivational thrust for the young minds to face their future confidently. It provided them with an insight into what they were doing wrong in their educational life. The session ended with a question-answer section where the students interacted enthusiastically with a number of intellectual questions.  At the end of the session, a memento was presented to Dr. Sivaji Chakravorti. 

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

  1. Innovative solutions: key to success

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Dr. Jacob Chandapillai (Director, Fluid Control Research Institute, Palakkad)

A non-technical talk on the topic “Innovative solutions: key to success” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 9th February 2019at college auditorium from 4:30 pm to 5:15 pm. The talk was delivered by Dr. Jacob Chandapillai (Director, Fluid Control Research Institute, Palakkad). The session opened with an introduction to change in trends in the public sector across the decade. He also added that at the end your ability to work and adapt to situations matter than the certificates you have earned. The present generation should be able to identify the problems the industries are facing and should find sustainable and feasible solutions to it.

        He also highlighted the point that engineers are solution providers. At present, a machine can do everything that a conventional engineer can do. So it is necessary to adapt and to provide solutions that are worth for the present and future also. He cited several examples like Uber and OLX which provided smart solutions to daily life problems. The session continued with the discussions which focused on how centralized office systems, process automation, robotic automation, IoT helped the end users to connect easily and efficiently. He also added that “ Either you should develop skill in a particular topic or yourself should provide a solution”. The session ended up with the concept that only engineers can survive in future. A Memento was presented to Dr. Jacob Chandapillai for his talk.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

  1. My Journey

Date: 10/02/2019

Venue: College Auditorium

Speaker: Dr. Madhu Mangal (Vice Chair, Life Member Affinity Group Kerala Section)

A non-technical talk on the topic “My Journey” was organised as a part of AKIASSC’19 on 9th February 2019 at college auditorium from 4:30 pm to 5:15 pm. The talk was delivered by Dr. Madhu Mangal (Vice Chair, Life Member Affinity Group Kerala Section). As the title suggests, the session was a light to his life which includes his career in Keltron. The key part of the session was an explanation of the product development process. The session also discussed various topics like the importance of Pre-research, product life cycle and importance of product sustenance. A memento was presented to Er. Madhu Mangal for his wonderful talk.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 100

Non IEEE Member: 30

Workshops

 

  • Industrial automation with PLC and SCADA

 

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: CNC Lab

Speaker: Er.Joseph Rojer (R&D manager, Walco solutions, Kochi)

As a Part of AKIASSC’19 the workshop on PLC and SCADA was conducted on 9th Feb 2019 by Er. Joseph Rojer (R&D manager, Walco solutions, Kochi) at CNC Lab from 9:00 am to 3:30 pm. The session started with an interactive session on “What is a PLC?” with real-life examples. Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers are a world leader in Industrial Automation sector. The same was explained in detail in the session. In simple words, he explained that a PLC is a controller where we can implement our ideas. The three basic components for a PLC that is feedback, Set value and Instructions were defined in the session and implementation of Ladder programming is explained in the session. The workshop continued with topics like the components of PLC, which includes its flow of control and its hardware components. The speed of control, memory requirements, input and output modules, signals, communication interfaces and it’s integration with different types of protocols were well explained in the session.

The afternoon session was a hands-on session about the implementation of the Logic gates gate with the help of software. The same was shown in hardware too. The session winded up in the evening. A Memento was presented to Er. Joseph Rojer.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 30

Non IEEE Member: 24

 

 

  • Lighting Design and New Trends in Lighting

 

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: CNC Lab

Speaker: Er. Toms Maly (Asst. Manager Wipro lightings)

         As a Part of AKIASSC’19 the workshop on Lighting Design and New Trends in lighting was conducted on 9th Feb 2019 by Er. Tomy Maly (Asst. Manager Wipro lightings) at CNC Lab from 9:00 am to 3:30 pm. The session started with an interactive section among the delegates about their basic knowledge of lighting terminologies. He explained about indoor lighting design and also about three lighting system types. The section provided information about classification of lighting systems based on visual applications such as- Ambient lighting, Accent lighting, and Task lighting. He also discussed the selection criteria of light sources and choice of luminaries based on application, efficiency, IP ratings, size, appearance,  maintenance, cost, light distribution pattern etc. He explained about design calculations for input data and about reflection factors. 

          A practical workshop session was also included, in which the delegates were explained to design the basic lighting design of a room. The session also discussed Internet of Lighting ( IoL ) and power over Ethernet and lighting systems.  Some basic facts were also discussed such as the visual, biological, and environmental impact of light. He also explained about Li-Fi technology based lighting solutions which will provide high-speed data transmission, significantly greater security and privacy,  low maintenance costs, facilitate asset tracking and geo-fencing, more robust and reliable wireless networks etc. The last session was about smart and connected outdoors, which will lead to optimised energy consumption, reduced maintenance costs, improved public safety, more than 50% energy savings etc. The session winded up with a promo video of Wipro. A memento was presented to Er. Toms Maly by the AKIASSC team for his excellent talk.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 30

Non IEEE Member: 24

 

 

  • Project Management Principles and Practices

 

Date: 9/02/2019

Venue: Digital Lecture Hall 

Speaker: Er. Muraleedharan Manningal (Head State e-Gov Mission Team & Chair-IEEE Kerala Section, Govt Relations)

           As a Part of AKIASSC’19 the workshop on Project Management was conducted on 9th Feb 2019 by Muraleedharan Manningal (Head State e-Gov Mission Team & Chair-IEEE Kerala Section, Govt Relations) at Digital Lecture Hall from 9:00 am to 3:30 pm. The workshop mainly covered the qualities required for a good project manager and definitions of project and project management. The talk was mainly focused on how efficiently time should be managed while doing a project. They discussed how to make a project successful and the reason behind the failure of most projects. Every participant explained their views on different projects. The session was interactive with various individual and group activities. Students were given opportunities to think like a project manager through the activities.

Attendees

IEEE Member: 40

Non IEEE Member: 10

 

Industrial visit

As a part of All Kerala Industry Applications Society Student Conclave an Industrial Visit was conducted at 10 am on 8th Feb 2019. The whole participants divided into two groups. One batch went to Patspin India Ltd. Palakkad. 45 Delegates accompanied by five volunteers visited Fluid control Research Institute and other batch to Patspin India Ltd.

 

  • Fluid Control Research Institute

 

An industrial visit to Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI), Kanjikode, west Palakkad was conducted as a part of AKIASSC’19 on Friday 8th February 2019. Fifty delegates with five Volunteers under the guidance of Dr. Leesha Paul , Prof  Muhammed Kasim and Dr.Madhu Mangal visited FCRI to interact with the premier institute in Fluids Engineering in South East Asia. The institute carries out the inspection of flow products, Testing and Calibration of Valves, flow meters and other measuring instruments as per ISO requirements, Model approval Tests, software for design and selection of flow meters/valves. There are various international standard sophisticated instruments available. The IV provided the opportunity to visit Water Flow Lab, Air Flow Lab, Oil Flow Laboratory and other auxiliary laboratories.

. The technical head of FCRI explained the working of machines and laboratory functions. Finally, he gave a brief introduction to FCRI and its importance in the current world.

 

 

  • Patspin India Ltd. Palakkad

 

 

Mr Kandimadhinadhan President of Patspin India Ltd Palakkad held an introductory session to the delegates and Mr Sudhakaran General Manager Commercial of Patspin India Ltd Palakkad about the company’s worldwide trading and marking. Patspin established in 1994 and has gained immense expertise in supplying and trading of cotton yarn, yarn, cotton yarn, etc. Precaution was given by Technical assistance. Dr. Leesha Paul , Prof. Muhammed Kasim Sand Dr.Madhu Mangal accompanied students in the visit. Visit started with substation of the company followed by, different labs where the cotton cleaned manually, then turned into a thread of various sizes and for various uses. After two and a half hour of learning different mechanism and machines, the session was concluded with a tea break, photo session and feedback from the delegates.

 

Field visit

On the first day of AKIASSC’19 8th Feb 2019, 134 delegates along with 20 volunteers visited Malampuzha garden. Prof. Muhammed Kasim S, Dr.Leesha Paul , Dr.Vasanthi and Dr.Madhu Mangal accompanied them. The trip started at 5.30 pm and reached Malampuzha garden by 6 pm. In Malampuzha garden, an icebreaking session was conducted by the crew led by Annmarry and Vaisakh. Delegates participated actively in the session, which included fun games and cultural segments followed by group photo session. Delegates really enjoyed those moments. The lightings in the evening were beautiful.  

 

MEETS

 

  •  IAS SB Chapter Advisers Meet

 

As a part of All Kerala Industry Applications Society Student Conclave 2019, Advisor’s Meet was conducted on 9th Feb 2019 from 10:00 am to 2:00 pm. The Meet was held with the initiative of the Advisors’ of IEEE Kerala Section to discuss the reforms that need to be introduced in the IEEE Kerala section and about its’ functioning till date. 

The Meet started at sharp 11:00 am with a welcome note given by Prof. Muhammed Kasim S (Chair IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala). This was followed by the self-introduction of the advisors that graced the meet. There were in total 12 advisors. The meet proceeded with the discussion of IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala activities. Prof. K Biju  (Secretary IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala) enlightened on the SBC operation with the reporting of activities by Anandhu S Kumar (Coordinator Student Branch Chapters IA/IE/PELS Jt.Chapter Kerala). Views on IAS chapters and Membership programs was put forward by Er. Srikanth Vasuden (IAS CMD Chapters and Membership-Chair). The morning session ended with the networking lunch at 1:00 pm. The afternoon session began, soon after the lunch break which lasted till 1:45 pm, with the presentation by advisors on the activity plan 2019. Advisors were actively involved in the meet exchanging their views. Finally, the Meet ended with the concluding remarks by Dr Bijuna Kunju (Vice Chair IA/IE/PELS Jt.Chapter Kerala).

The meet was a success, which gave a platform for advisors to put forward their plans and ideas for the budding IEEE SB chapter. They discussed actively on various aspects and sought for the reforms that need to be implemented to make the IEEE SB chapter built a strong foundation and shine brighter in the coming days.

 

  • WiE Empowerment Summit (WES)

 

As part of AKIASSC’19 (All Kerala Industry Applications Society Student Conclave) organised by IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala in association with IEEE IAS SBC NSSCE, WiE Empowerment Summit (WES) was conducted on 10th Feb 2019. It was an interactive session by women entrepreneurs lead by, Dr. K Bijuna (Vice Chair IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala), Mrs Jyothi Ramaswami (Vice Chair of WiE AG Kerala) and Megha Ben (Regional-10 Student Ambassador of IEEE CS). 

The event was scheduled on 10th February. The meet was inaugurated by the session of Dr K Bijuna on introduction to Women In Engineering at 10.30 am. She had given an overview of WIE AG to the students. Mrs Jyothiramaswamy had given a path to initiate WIE AG in the student branches and the benefits of WIE membership. Er. Megha Ben had explained the whole scholarships that IEEE provided and also her life path through these scholarships. She also motivated the candidates to show their skills on the platform of IEEE.

  After the session of Megha Ben, the students were divided into groups of ten members and each team were advised to provide suggestions on Women In Engineering. The students came up with innovative ideas. The session ended at 12.00 pm by giving mementoes to the women leaders by Dr. Leesha Paul Branch Counsellor of IEEE SB NSSCE.

         IAS SB Chapter Chairs Meet

IEEE IAS SBC Student Chairs gathered on February 10th, offering a chain to get in touch with, to present an annual report of 2018 and to discuss the plans for 2019.The meeting started at 10:30 am. Abhinand A S (Student Representative of IA/IE/PELS Joint Chapter Kerala) delivered the welcome speech. Afterwards, the introduction of Execom 2019 took place. Chairs of all student chapter present there introduced themselves, along with other dignitaries present there. Which includes prof. Muhammad Kasim S (Chair, IA/IE/PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala), Prof. K Biju  (Secretary, IA/ IE/ PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala), Er.Sreekanth Vasudevan (IEEE IAS CMD Chapters and Membership-Chair & IEEE IAS Young Professionals Committee-Chair). The first session was handled by Er. Sreekanth Vasudevan. He insisted on the complete involvement of the members in the activities. His was an interactive session discussing the responsibilities of the chairs. The next session was taken by Anandhu S Kumar (Co-ordinator of Student Branch Chapter). He explained the necessary steps that every IEEE SBC should take throughout their activities. He also explained about different opportunities provided by the organisation. Afterwards, everyone came up with their opinions to improve the activities of the SBC and for the active participation of the members. The meeting discussed the ways to make growth in the Renewal of IEEE IAS SBC membership, as its rate has been fallen in the past few years.  Later on, the presentation of the activity report by the ‘Outstanding IEEE IAS SB Chapter Award’ winners took place. Prasoon Chandran Mavila of IIST Trivandrum, Abhinand A S of TKMCE and Athira M of NSSCE presented their activity reports of 2018. At last, Nebic Johnson, Student representative (2019) IA/IE/PELS Joint Chapter Kerala delivered vote of thanks.

 

  • IAS YP meet

 

YP Meet (Young Professional Meet) was held on 10th February 2019 at NSS College of Engineering as part of AKIASSC’19. A team of 7 members from YP joined for the meeting. The team was headed by Er. Shahim Baker (Secretary IEEE Kerala Section) and Er. Thomas Sabu, (Secretary Kerala YP). The team also included Er. Sudev and Er. Jishnu who are also active members of Kerala YP.

The major discussion by the team was the importance to maintain and improve the IEEE organisation. They also discussed the pros and cons of Technologies. The YP members interacted with the student chairs from different colleges. Prof. Muhammad Kasim S, Dr. Madhu mangal and Prof. K Biju also engaged in the interaction.

The newly elected student Execom introduced themselves and their plans for the new academic year. The plan included implementing programs and events to provide the IEEE Student members with technical knowledge.

          Cultural Events

On 9th February 2019, Saturday, the second day of AKIASSC, we arranged a cultural night dedicated to the delegates at the open stage of NSS College of Engineering. 

The program was started at 7.00 pm with the interactive session arranged by Binsin. He added fun games that engaged the delegates. This was followed by vibrant musical performance organized by the college band ‘Rudra’. The lead singer was Rakhi R (Chair PELS SBC NSSCE). The cultural night was fulfilled with a fabulous gale dinner. The program came to an end at 9.30 pm, which gave wonderful memories and unforgettable moments to each and everyone who were a part of it.

Valedictory Function

The valedictory function started at 3:00 pm at the college auditorium. Prof. K Biju delivered the welcome speech. He welcomed Prof. Muhammad Kasim S (Chair, IA/ IE/ PELS Jt. Chapter Kerala), Dr.  Leesha Paul (Counselor, IEEE SB NSSCE) and Er. Shahim Baker (CEO, Baker Associates Group). All delegates and volunteers gathered in the auditorium. For the first time, IAS SBC Chairs Certificates are distributed. The certificates are awarded by Er. Shahim Baker and Prof. Muhammad Kasim S. The participation certificates are awarded to delegates by Er. Shahim Baker. Six Chairs awarded full fee weaver who brought more than 6 numbers of delegates from their SB Chapters. Abhinav R (Secretary, IEEE IAS SBC NSSCE) delivered the vote of thanks. Feedback session from the delegates got very good comments as expected. The memorable event AKIASSC’19 ended with the valedictory function.

Conclusion

The Industry Application Society/Industrial Electronic Society/ Power Electronics Society Jt. Chapter, IEEE Kerala Section in association with IAS SBC NSS College of Engineering, Palakkad had organized a three day Flagship Event from 8th – 10th of February2019, All Kerala industry Application Society Student Conclave 2019. 

The first day commenced with the arrival of the participants and then continued by an Industrial visit at PATSPIN and FCRI. The Inaugural Ceremony was conducted in the afternoon after the arrival of the Chief Guest, Dr. Sivaji Chakravorti. There was an Invited talk and a field trip to Malampuzha. On the second day, three parallel workshops were organized. The IAS Student Branch Chapter Advisors Meet also took place simultaneously. In the evening there were two invited talks. The events for the day ended with Cultural Programs and Gale Dinner. On the last day there were two invited talks continued by WIE Empowerment Summit, IAS Student Branch Chapters Chairs Meet and Young Professional Meet.

The event was a grand success with the active participation of the students and hard work of the volunteers.